Acne occurs when the pores on your skin become blocked with oil, dead skin, or bacteria. Each pore on your skin is the opening to a follicle. The follicle is made up of a hair and a sebaceous (oil) gland. The oil gland releases sebum (oil), which travels up the hair, out of the pore, and onto your skin. The sebum keeps your skin lubricated and soft. If you develop acne, this may be because of one or more problems in this lubrication process. Possible causes include too much oil or sebum being produced by the follicle or dead skin cells and bacteria building up in the pore. Acne will appear when bacteria grows in the clogged pore and the oil is unable to escape. Certain risk factors that may put you at risk for developing acne include hormonal changes, medications and a diet high in refined sugars or carbohydrates such as bread and chips. The most damaging outcome of acne is scarring.
Scarring is a natural part of the body’s healing process. Most wounds, except for very minor ones, result in some degree of scarring. Scars form when the skin is damaged and the body forms new collagen to mend it. The scar has a different texture and appearance than the surrounding tissue. There are different kinds of scars but the majority are flat and pale. However, in cases when the body produces too much collagen the scars can be raised. These tend to be more common in younger and dark-skinned people. Other scars can have a sunken appearance when some of either the supporting fat or muscle below the skin is lost.
Sweating is normal and it is how our bodies regulate temperature. Hyperhidrosis is when you produce more sweat than is actually required to cool down it can occur anywhere on the body. When it begins to affect daily life, and cause embarrassment, there are effective treatments that can keep the situation under control. If there is no obvious cause it is thought that hyperhidrosis is the result of a problem with the sympathetic nervous system and the signals to the glands on the skin. It is also possible that your genes may play a role and it is heredity. Triggers that can stimulate excessive sweating include exercise, alcohol, caffeine, smoking, spicy food and stress.
As we grow older our eyes are usually the first part of our body that begin to show their age. The muscles around the eyes begin to relax causing the lower eyelids to appear baggy and the upper eyelids to sag. ‘Crow’s feet’ and lines and wrinkles develop around the eyes and dark circles and bags can develop under them. These are all worsened by excessive sun exposure, poor diet, lack of sleep and smoking.
Lines and wrinkles appear as we get older and are a natural process of ageing. As we become older our skin gets thinner, drier and less elastic and its ability to protect itself from damage is also reduced. Usually, the first lines to appear are as a result of our facial expressions, mainly smiling, frowning or squinting, which cause the skin around the mouth and eyes to wrinkle.
Each time we use a facial muscle a groove forms under the surface of the skin and when you are young the skin springs back, but as you get older, the skin loses its ability to spring back which results in a more permanent groove.
Sun damage, smoking, dehydration and some medications are also known to speed up the development of lines and wrinkles on our body. In addition to this, our genetic makeup determines how and where they develop.
Skin pigmentation alters the colour of your skin. Skin gets its colour from a pigment called melanin which is made by cells in the skin. When these cells become damaged the production of melanin is affected so patches of discolouration may occur. If too much is produced you get darker patches (brown spots) or if too little is produced you get lighter patches (Vitiligo). Causes of pigmentation include sun exposure, pregnancy, too much iron in the blood, certain medication, diseases or skin inflammation.
Lips begin to thin as you get older due to, like your skin, a natural decline in collagen and hyaluronic acid, which keeps your lips moist and plump from the inside out. Other factors that are to blame for thinning lips include genetics, lifestyle factors, too much sun exposure, dehydration, smoking and even drinking out of a straw. Anything that repeatedly causes creases in your lips will break down the collagen resulting in deeper lines and less fullness.